Integration of scientific and engineering developments
09:00Invited speaker: Prof. Christophe Detavernier (Ghent University, BE)
ALD in nanoporous materials - from synchrotron science to applications
in catalysis and sensing.
Atomic layer deposition offers the potential for tailoring the pore size
and for coating the internal surface of nanoporous materials. By using
nanoporous films as model systems, synchrotron-based in situ
experiments demonstrated that ALD can conformally coat the interior
surface of pores with a diameter ~ 1nm. Examples of catalytic or
photocatalytic activition of mesoporous materials will be discussed,
illustrating the potential relevance of ALD as a novel tool for making
model (photo)catalysts and sensing devices.
09:35H. C. M. Knoops (Oxford Instruments Plasma Technology, UK)
Gas Residence Time: the Hidden Parameter for High-quality SiNx Prepared by Plasma-assisted ALD
In this contribution we will show that high-quality SiNx can be obtained by plasma-assisted ALD when using SiH2(NHtBu)2 as precursor and N2 plasma as reactant. Here the gas residence time was found to determine the material quality. This parameter governs a “redeposition effect” where the plasma activation of reaction products leads to redeposition of the created fragments and hence to film impurities.
09:55Constantin Vahlas (CIRIMAT, ENSIACET, FR)
Liquid and Solid Precursor Delivery Systems in ALD - CVD Processes: From bubbling to direct liquid injection and to fluidized beds
This presentation provides an overview of the methods to generate precursor vapors and transport them to CVD/ALD chambers, based on a study of early and recent patents. Criteria for the selection of appropriate solvents for direct liquid injection technologies and recent results on production of vapors by sublimation in fluidized beds will be particularly presented and discussed.
10:15Kohei Shima (University of Tokyo, JP)
Sub-nanoscale Structure and Barrier Performance of Cu(Mn)/Co(W) System for ULSI Cu Interconnects Examined by Atom Probe Tomography
CVD-Cu(Mn)/ALD-Co(W) system was proposed for reliable ULSI Cu interconnects. Role of W and Mn was investigated using atom probe tomography. It was revealed W segregation in Co(W) layer inhibited Cu diffusion through Co grain boundaries, and Mn in the Cu(Mn) layer diffused out from the Cu(Mn) and selectively segregated at the Co(W) grain boundaries, improving the barrier properties of Co(W).
11:00Invited speaker: Dr Simon Elliott (University College Cork, Ir)
Atomic scale modelling of ALD mechanism
Atomic layer deposition depends greatly on the underlying chemistry, and so it is vital to understand the chemical mechanisms by which precursor molecules turn into thin films. We use density functional theory to reveal direct information about the reactivity of precursors and substrates. However, we also show how these results can be connected via higher-scale models to experimental measurements of growth rate, mass changes, interface composition, film density and conformality. We present some examples of how negative results from ALD experiments can be combined with modelling to reveal new insights into ALD mechanism in particular and nanoscale surface science in general.
11:35Matti Putkonen (VTT, FL)
Utilising ALD for PEM fuel cells for future automotive MEAs
New ALD approaches for automotive PEM fuel cell catalysts are being developed in project Catapult . In this project Pt ALD process is utilized for coating of corrosion resistant supports of various morphologies including fibrous and tubular 3D structures. In this presentation we report preparation of core-shell carbon-ceramic fibrous as well as ceramic tubular catalyst supports utilizing electrospinning and ALD
11:55Shuquen Chen (Queen Mary University of London, UK)
Aerosol Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition of Ga-doped ZnO Films for Energy Efficient Glazing
Ga-doped ZnO films for use as low emissivity (low-E) energy saving glazing coatings were deposited onto glass substrates by Aerosol Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (AACVD) of zinc and gallium acetylacetonates in methanol. The optical performance of 3.0 at.% gallium doped sample (84.7% visible transmittance and 48.9% reflection at 2500 nm) is close to the optical requirement for commercial low-E coating.
12:15Silvia Armini (Imec, BE)
Sub-nanometer pore sealing solution of ultra- porous oxycarbosilane-based spin-on dielectrics
One of the key issues in the integration of ultra-porous materials (k<2.4) is their inability to prevent gaseous penetration during metallization. Ultra-porous oxycarbosilane-based spin-on dielectrics are successfully sealed against a chemical vapor deposited MnN barrier down to 3 nm thickness using sub-nanometer monomolecular films deposited by a vapor deposition technique on 300mm blanket and patterned wafers.
In situ monitoring approaches
13:30Invited speaker: Prof. Mikko Ritala (University of Helsinki, FI)
In situ studies on reaction mechanisms in Atomic Layer Deposition processes
The success of ALD is built on chemistry: the unique benefits of ALD can be exploited only when proper precursors undergoing saturative surface reactions can be identified for the materials of interest. A thorough understanding of the surface reactions is therefore of utmost importance for both controlling and optimizing the processes and for developing new ALD processes and precursors. In this presentation, in situ reaction mechanism studies on ALD processes are reviewed with representative examples using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM).
14:05Christoph Adelmann (Imec, BE)
Atomic layer deposition of Ru thin films using the zero-valence precursor EBECH Ru
We demonstrate the ALD of Ru films from EBECH Ru and O2. Good nucleation and rapid film closure was found both on SiO2 and TiN substrates. The growth per cycle was much higher on TiN than on SiO2 due to a surfactant effect of segregating Ti, which also influenced the texture of the films.
14:25Kilian Devloo-Casier (Gent University, BE)
In situ IR-spectroscopy as monitoring tool during atomic layer deposition
In order to understand the various surface reactions that occur during atomic layer deposition, the use of in situ IR techniques is needed. We briefly review the (usually transmission-type) IR spectroscopy methods that have been reported in literature, with their advantages and limitations. Two novel ideas are introduced. The use of porous films in transmission IR-spectroscopy and the use of Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS).
14:45Paul R. Chalker (University of Liverpool, UK)
Photochemical atomic layer deposition of alumina and silica thin films
We report the deposition of alumina and silica films using photochemical atomic layer deposition. A shuttered VUV light source with a spectral range from 115 to 400nm has been used to excite either trimethyl aluminium or tetraethyl orthosilicate with an O2 oxidant to deposit films using an ALD approach. The deposition mechanisms are elucidated using an in-situ quartz crystal microbalance.
15:05Ganesh Sundaram (Ultratech Inc, MA, USA)
In-situ Analysis of ALD Grown Lithium Multinary Films
In this paper we report on real-time process optimization characterization of LiMnOx grown via Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), using a commercial cross-flow reactor. Lithium and Manganese oxide processes using lithium tert-butoxide (LiOtBu), and bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)manganese Mn(EtCp)2 were characterized using either water of ozone as co-reactants. Low vapor pressure delivery (LVPD) systems, optimized for ALD dosing were implemented to deliver the precursors at relatively low temperatures. Using real-time in-situ characterization via spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), (which were integrated in close proximity to the wafer), as well as ex-situ measurements, the binary oxide processes were optimized, and an optimal process window was determined for the LiMnOx.
15:25M. Arens (SENTECH Instruments GmbH, DE)
In situ monitoring and optimization of PEALD film growth on the real surface
In situ monitoring was applied to monitor plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) growth processes and to optimize the process parameters. The applied optical method detects film growth on the real sample surface in situ. The results obtained with the ALD Real Time Monitor exhibits sub-Angstrom thickness sensitivity at high sampling rate (up to 25 Hz). We present results of the dynamic real surface monitor for different applications.
16:00Breakout session:PhD awards, wrap-up and summary
1st PHD prize: €200+ sponsored invitation to the International Conference: EuroCVD 20, Sempach, Switzerland, July 13-17, 2015 invitation to the International Conference: EuroCVD)